Contributed by Bob-White Systems' Dairy & Food Testing Lab Manager Jana Koschak
Most of the people who tell me they are interested in making cheese at home say they want to make aged Cheddar. Not to discourage anyone, but I have found it best to start with a basic soft cheese or a simple cultured dairy product like yogurt, cream cheese, or butter. These products require little preparation and minimal equipment and are harder to mess up than an aged Cheddar. Once you master the basics, which I’ve outlined below, it will be easier to move onto tangy Cheddar and other more advanced cheeses like burrata and blue cheese.
-Large heavy-bottomed stainless steel stock pot (10-20 quart): A stainless steel pot is easy to clean and sanitize and won’t react with the milk. A pot that is as wide as it is tall will make cutting and stirring curds much easier for a novice and a heavy bottom will protect the milk from scorching if you cook directly on a gas or electric stove. For best results, I recommend purchasing two pots that fit together to create a double-boiler, which prevents scorching or overheating. You can also use your sink as a water bath by filling it up with hot water and submerging your cheese pot in it to reach temperature. Look to purchase your pots from a reputable kitchen supply store (fake stainless steel is out there!); I recommend All-Clad brand.
-Thermometer (digital or dial): Temperature accuracy is important, so invest in a good food thermometer. Thermometers specifically for cheese making.
-Perforated stainless steel ladle: A ladle with small holes is best for stirring in rennet and scooping curds.
-Stainless steel cheese knife: Though a cheese knife is made specifically for cutting curds, you can also use any straight-bladed kitchen knife.
-Natural fiber fine-mesh cheesecloth: This is a necessary tool for hanging soft cheeses, lining molds for hard cheeses, and making butter. Some cloths are advertised as cheesecloth, but are not. Look for a fine-mesh cheesecloth and avoid the loose-weaved imposters!
-Enamel or stainless steel colander: These come in handy for making a variety of cheeses and cultured dairy products and are always good to have on hand.
-Fine grain sea salt: I prefer using domestically produced sea salt from the Maine Sea Salt Company, but you can use any sea salt or kosher salt as long as salt is the only ingredient listed. For example, iodized salt, which contains iodine, can interfere with the growth of lactic bacteria—the good bacteria that you want!.
-Selection of cultures: This is for making basic cheeses and dairy products. Choose from yogurt culture, fromage blanc culture, feta culture, good mesosphillic culture, etc.
-Single strength liquid veal or vegetable rennet: I like liquid rennet because I find it easier to measure and use. You can also use rennet tablets.
And most importantly…
-Good, clean raw milk or non-homogenized pasteurized milk: In order to make good cheese you need good milk. This should, perhaps, be the first essential ingredient on my list. Fresh milk straight from the farm where it was produced is ideal. Beware that all farm-fresh milk is not created equal. Milk quality is a remarkable reflection of the environment in which it was produced. If the milk was produced by clean, happy, well-fed cows, the flavors in your cheese will reflect that. Investigate whether the farm is grass or grain fed. Do the cows graze on pasture, or are they confined to a barn? If you are using raw milk, make sure it is a certified producer (if raw milk is legal in your state) or that the producer has good, sanitary milking practices. If using pasteurized milk from a farm or grocery store, be sure to get non-homogenized milk for the best results. Ultra-high-temperature treated or ultra-pasteurized milk is not suitable for cheesemaking since its protein structure has been denatured and it will not coagulate well. Milk that is ultra-pasteurized is required by law to be labeled, so look for the UP or UHT designation. Finally, full-fat/whole milk is generally best for most types of cheese. You may run into some problems using skimmed milk.
Types of Milk
Cow: Cows produce more milk than sheep or goats. The flavors are often pleasingly grassy and sweet. Cow milk generally contains a nice balance of fat and protein, making it great for a variety of cheeses from feta to parmesan.
Goat: Goats produce milk that is pure white (since goats don’t pass beta carotene into the milk) that is lower in fat and protein than other milk. Curds from goat milk are generally softer and yield is a bit lower. Flavor can vary greatly depending on the time of year and the goat’s diet, and sometimes the milk has a hint of “goatiness.”
Sheep: Sheep produce yellow, creamy-colored milk that has a slight shimmer due to the amount of proteins and fats in it. For this reason, the resulting cheeses are often slightly oily and a little golden in color. The flavor is often barnyard-y and nutty, with scents of dry grass. While sheep produce roughly 2 quarts of milk per animal, you can actually make more cheese from a gallon of sheep’s milk than with a gallon of cow or goat’s milk due to the high fat and protein content.
Jana Smart Koschak is the laboratory technician and cheesemaking instructor for Bob-White Systems, a micro-dairy supply company, in South Royalton, Vermont. Previously, Jana has worked as a cheesemaker and goatherd for Twig Farm in West Cornwall, VT. She has done formal trainings as a cheesemaker with Peter Dixon at Westminster Dairy Consulting and also completed Penn State’s Art and Science of Cheesemaking certification. She can’t wait until she can get her own cow and never buy butter again!
Stay tuned! Next in this series, Jana will discuss raw milk dairy products and the implications of pasteurizing milk when making cheese at home.
Cultures, Rennet, Molds, and miscellaneous cheesemaking items:
-Bob-White Systems (www.bobwhitesystems.com)
-Dairy Connection (http://www.getculture.com/)
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